Early April

April 8, 2021

This sort of weather is not very conducive to field work.

However, some things are afoot. Through the Skye Naturalists’ Network on Facebook and with the help of Skye Gardening Society, I have had a number of people locating and inspecting Quercus ilex (Evergreen/Holm/Holly Oak) and Pyracantha coccinea in the hope of finding leaf mines caused by moth larvae.

The firethorn leaf miner Phyllonorycter leucographella invaded the UK 30 or so years ago and has spread north rapidly. It is found up to the Highlands but there are still vice-counties where it hasn’t reached or hasn’t been noticed, such as ours.  It makes rather silvery blister mines on the upperside of Pyracantha (Firethorn) leaves and no other species is known to use this foodplant.

The European oak leaf-miner or Zeller’s midget Phyllonorycter messaniella makes blister mines on oak leaves (and also on beech).  Unfortunately, on our native oaks, there are a number of other Phyllonorycter species that can be confusing, but P. messaniella is a specialist species on the evergreen oak, Quercus ilex.  On Q. ilex in Scotland, this is the only Phyllonorycter mine to be found. 

It turns out that both host species are pretty rare on Skye/Raasay and so far no mines have been found.

Gall on gall:

This is Salix cinerea subsp. oleifolia (Rusty Sallow/Willow). I think the rosette, which is a common gall locally, is caused by a dipteran of the Rabdophaga strobilina/rosaria agg. However, there is another gall on the leaf midrib, upper surface, which is probably caused by a sawfly – Euura pedunculi or similar. The divisions shown are millimetres.

I have sent away a couple of stoneflies and Seth is kindly looking at a scuttle fly for me using a new key to the genus Triphleba provided by Henry Disney at Cambridge who is “King of Scuttle Flies”. Henry says this is the right genus and sent the key. Even then, quite a few of the outcomes are “possibly the unknown (fe)male of…..” so Good Luck Seth.

Scuttle Fly

I will write a separate entry about spiders.

On the plant side, I have found a large colony of Tussilago farfara (Colt’s-foot) on disturbed ground not very far from home. There really isn’t very much of this on Raasay:

The resin glands on Abies alba (European Silver-fir) are apparent at the moment and contain a rich red resin.

Moth News

March 24, 2021

At Nigel’s suggestion I went and had a look at young leaves of Leucanthemum vulgare (Oxeye Daisy) and successfully completed my mission by finding the larva of the micro-moth Bucculatrix nigricomella, sometimes given the name Daisy Bent-wing.

This is new to the vice-county. Map from eastscotland-butterflies:

The next day I found this chap flitting about in the conservatory:

Depressaria daucella

Sometimes known as Dingy Flat-body (poor thing), I found larvae last year on Oenanthe crocata (Hemlock Water-dropwort) on the shore just along from the house:

Depressaria daucella larva on Oenothera crocata

However, the adult marks the 200th species of adult moth I have recorded here at West Suisnish.

Inverts and Plants

March 18, 2021

Someone has planted two groups of three Monkey-puzzle trees (Araucaria araucana) on the lower slopes of Temptation Hill on Raasay. (There could be more.) This seems slightly strange to me, but perhaps no stranger than the Forestry planting little patches of cypress all over the place in the same area. They should perhaps have been planted more than one metre apart if they are to grow to full size.

Araucaria araucana (Monkey-puzzle)

Nearby a small forest of Ribes sanguineum (Flowering Currant – silly name as all Ribes species flower!) is coming into flower:

Ribes sanguineum (Flowering Currant)

Recent finds have included lots of this Globular Springtail on a picnic table (Thanks Stephen M for identification):

Dicyrtomina saundersi

and, yes, those marks at the bottom of the picture are millimetre divisions.

Larvae of The Drinker were out in numbers yesterday:

The Drinker

There were lots of this common fly sunning themselves on a wooden bridge across the Arish Burn:

Phaonia tuguriorum

I see this one pretty much all year:

The moth trap has been out a couple of times but has yielded nothing new for the time of year in the way of moths. Adults caught so far this year are Dotted Border, Hebrew Character, Mottled Grey, Pale Brindled Beauty and Red Chestnut.

However a coouple of days ago there were no moths in the trap, just a few gnats and this fine spider:

Clubiona phragmitis

According to the Spider and Harvestman Recording Scheme website this species is “very scattered…. in northern Britain”, “can be found in most wetland habitats, especially in emergent vegetation at the edge of water and occasionally on sand dunes” and “adults have been found throughout the year, but mostly in late spring to mid-summer and late summer to early autumn”. My specimen is not far from wetlands but I am not sure that it is late spring yet nor that being found in a moth trap is entirely normal. Something of an outlier as a record.

The Raasay Mines

March 18, 2021

A little over one hundred years ago a poor seam of iron ore on Raasay was mined for strategic purposes. A splendid book about the mine was published in 1990 and subsequently updated:

There was both opencast and underground mining. A barrier across the entrance to No. 1 Mine was put in place quite a lot of years ago:

This is what the entrances to No. 2 Mine looked like in 1917:

but this one was never worked owing to geological issues and subsequently the entrances were partially filled in. The biggest remaining hole looks like this:

The lower entrance is even less inviting:

I had started checking on these in the hope of finding hibernating Herald moths and perhaps other interesting critters, but I have decided that discretion is the better part of valour. In addition to a torch one would need ropes, back-up, absoultely no sense of claustrophobia and possibly a deathwish.

Anyway, I did find this spider in one of the entrances:

Metellina merianae

Odds & Ends

March 9, 2021

This little rove beetle was on the outside of the house. It is Tachinus subterraneus (thanks Bruce and Stephen M) and amazingly not recorded by Richard Moore during his years of beetle recording on Raasay. There are curiously few Scottish records on NBN, too.

Tachinus subterraneus

This moth-fly today is Psychoda sp. but going further than that requires checking the genitalia and/or antennal tip – not for me nor even for my bug/beetle/general entomology expert friend!

Psychoda sp

In the bay outside there are two Canada Geese – numerous enough to be a pest in places but a real rarity on Raasay.

Canada Goose on Raasay

Low Water

March 3, 2021

We have had some of the lowest tides of the year in the past few days, exposing the kelp beds in the bay by the house. Monday was the perfect day for exploring this habitat – the lowest tide of this period, not a cloud in the sky and not even a breeze. And all well before the midge season starts. The Eider were making their calls of faint astonishment and the Herring Gulls wanted to beat me to the animal life with intentions less pacific than mine.

Netted Dog Whelks had left tracks in the sand and Banded Chinks have laid egg rings all over the kelp.

Banded Chink: Adult and Egg Rings
Netted Dog Whelk

There was the usual array of starfish (Bloody Henry, Common, Spiny) though no Seven-armed which seem to be seasonal, appearing later in the year, and large numbers of Edible Sea Urchins – always worth another image!

Edible Sea Urchin

There were various crabs, hermit, spider and others, anemones and fish. I only caught one which appears to be a Five-bearded Rockling.

Five-bearded Rockling

There was a fair bit of this seaweed, which Seth suggests may be Desmarestia aculeata. An expert opinion is awaited. Later: confirmed.

Desmarestia aculeata?

Early February at Home

February 9, 2021

There is a lone curlew on the shore. I think there was just one this time last year – perhaps the same individual. Recently, there have been a flock of Purple Sandpipers, Turnstones and a pair of Goosanders to add to the usual Red-breasted Mergansers, Mallards, Eider, etc.

I have recorded Rhododendron Bud Blast before. Then it was called Pycnostysanus azaleae, but now it is Seifertia azaleae.

Seifertia azaleae

Several galls are present on small sallows along the road. I opened one up and found it to be caused by the gall midge Rabdophaga salicis.

Early one morning, I found this little chap in the bathroom, Amaurobius similis or perhaps A. fenestralis :

Amaurobius cf similis

We are having a period of cold weaher but escaping the serious snow affecting much of Scotland.

January

January 31, 2021

The weather and lockdown have limited activity considerably, but I have managed a few things such as second records for Raasay for Cupressus lawsoniana (Lawson’s Cypress) and Olearia macrodonta (New Zealand Holly), the former planted, the latter looking self-sown.

Yesterday the gorse near the shore yielded a spider, Metellina sp.

Metellina sp.

and several types of fly:

A window gnat. Sylvicola sp. probably S.cinctus

If it hadn’t escaped I could have got it to species as Seth pointed me towards a relatively simple key to the four British species. Also, there were a couple of Black Flies (I’m not tackling them), a common seaweed fly Coelopa frigida, though not so common in January, and a Heteromyza, possibly H. commixta but perhaps H. rotundicornis – it may be possible to sort this out with expert help. Later: confirmed as H. commixta.

Thanks to Seth (flies) and Katie (spider) for identifaction.

Report On Botanical Activities July-Dec 2020

January 18, 2021

A report on botanical activities in vice-county 104 during July-Dec 2020 is here.

Meanwhile, I am isolating at home with only the white-tailed eagles, otters, sparrowhawks etc. to watch….

James’ Videos

December 7, 2020

James Merryweather posts videos on YouTube under the AuchtertyreAcademy imprint that may be of interest e.g.

BLUEBELL deconstructing the English Jacinth. Part 1: Identity
BLUEBELL deconstructing the English Jacinth. Part 2: Life History
BRAINWAVE OR PIPEDREAM? will tree planting save us from climate change?
CHRISTMAS TREES IN SCOTLAND?
GETTING TO KNOW BRITAIN’S FERNS
GORSE: NURSERY FOR WOODLAND an ecological process vs destructive management
IS IT A FERN? (part1)
IS IT A FERN? (part 2) Now I can tell that’s not a fern, but . . .
MALE & BUCKLER FERNS MADE LESS DIFFICULT
MODERN FORESTRY PART 1
PICKING UP A CRAB